Drainage Disputes between Adjoining Property Owners In L.A.
Issues involving water drainage frequently arise in Los Angeles and Southern California where millions of property owners in the hills or where one property is below an adjoining property. Since virtually all of Southern California is situated on land that drops from the San Gabriel Mountains angling downhill to the Pacific Ocean – we all have some potential drainage disputes.
Hillside Property Owners and Drainage Laws in Los Angeles
Natural water flow in Southern California is typically from small local creeks, brooks, springs or during rain events where the resultant storm water drainage can cause problems that can range from minor aggravations due to wet soil to extremely-costly, major headaches such as home flooding, mud flows, and even foundation damage from hydraulic pressure and the partial or complete undermining of foundations.
Local government regulations regarding water flow/drainage from one property to another are quite rare, especially in non incorporated areas in Los Angeles County, or other rural areas. Therefore, water flow/drainage issues are normally governed by common law principles in California. In legal speak, the “dominant estate” (i.e. the dominant property) is the property at the higher elevation, from which water flows. The “servient estate” (i.e. servient property) is the property with the lower elevation, onto which water flows.
Natural Flow of Storm and Surface Water in Los Angeles
If water flow exists in its natural state, the owner of the property at the higher elevation has the right for that water to flow from their property onto all properties having lower elevations pursuant to the natural flow. That is, so long as water is flowing off the higher property at the natural flow (i.e., the speed, frequency, intensity and path of the water has not been changed from its natural condition).
Moreover, the owners of the lower properties upon which water naturally flows cannot change that water flow to the detriment of the owner of the higher property. In other words, properties at a lower elevation must continue to “accept” water which flows naturally from properties located at higher elevations. If the owner of a lower property attempts to stop, alter, or impede such water flow and such alteration causes damage or injury to the higher property (for example, storm water is backed up onto the higher property, which did not occur before), the owner of the lower property could be held liable for money damages or subject to a cease and desist order from a court.
Conversely, the reverse of this common law rule is the mandate that the owner of the higher property may not change the conditions on their land in such a fashion as to increase the burden of the water flow onto the lower properties. That is, the owner of the higher property cannot – by development or other alteration of the land – increase the amount, frequency, intensity, or speed of water flow onto the lower properties in such a fashion as to injure or damage the lower properties. If the owner of a higher property alters water flow onto a lower property in such a fashion as to cause injury or damage, the owner of the higher property can be liable for money damages or be subject to a cease and desist order or an injunction from a court.
Upshot – In summary, anyone who alters the natural water flow or storm water drainage can potentially be liable for damages or be required by a court to put the land back the way it was before the alteration.
Exception is Drainage Easement by Prescription
One exception to this common law rule involves drainage easements by prescription. If someone has altered the natural water drainage and such alteration occurs or is tolerated for 15 years or longer, the property owner claiming damage could lose their claim. In such a case, the property owner who altered the drainage for 15 years or longer may, in certain cases, obtain a drainage easement by prescription. If that occurs, the altered drainage which has occurred for more than 15 years essentially becomes the new natural water course.
Water Flow or Drainage Dispute In Los Angeles, CA?
What can a property owner do – if it is believed that the neighboring property has been altered in such a fashion so as to adversely affect drainage onto their property? If you consult with Drainage Dispute Attorney Jeffrey Williams he will likely suggest it is usually beneficial to all parties involved to attempt to resolve drainage problems out of court without resulting to litigation. We would likely suggest that you have us present your case to the neighbor by letter or in a face-to-face meeting to attempt to have the drainage issue resolved amicably. If the neighbor is resistant or unwilling to remedy the situation, the affected property owner will normally have to file a civil lawsuit for damages or injunctive relief. Attorney Jeffrey Williams is sensitive to the cost of litigation and would only suggest litigation as a last resort to save you from the greater expense, time and negative emotions often involved.
Drainage Dispute Remedies Through Arbitration
In those cases where a drainage dispute compromise cannot be reached initially, many parties are often willing to submit the dispute to a third party for mediation or binding arbitration, which can also lead to a cost-effective resolution of the matter. Real Estate and Drainage Dispute Attorney Jeffrey Williams is experienced in these common Los Angeles area Drainage Disputes matters and working toward a cost-effective resolution for our clients.